Consumer Behavior in Choosing Products

Consumer Behavior in Choosing Products
Consumer behavior is the process and activity when someone deals with the search, selection, purchase, use, and evaluation of products and services to meet their needs and desires. Consumer behavior is the things that underlie consumers to make purchasing decisions. For low-priced goods (low-involvement) the decision-making process is carried out easily, while for high-priced goods (high-involvement) the decision making process is carried out with careful consideration. Purchasing decision making process (Consumer considerations in choosing) Before and after making a purchase, a consumer will carry out a number of processes that underlie decision making, namely:
1. Recognition of problems (problem recognition). Consumers will buy a product as a solution to the problems they face. Without the introduction of problems that arise, consumers can not determine the product to be purchased.
2. Search for information (information source). After understanding the existing problems, consumers will be motivated to find information to solve existing problems through information search. The process of finding information can come from memory (internal) and based on the experience of others (external).
3. Evaluate alternatives (alternative evaluation). After consumers get various kinds of information, consumers will evaluate alternatives that exist to overcome the problems they face.
4. Purchase decision. After consumers evaluate several strategic alternatives, consumers will make a purchasing decision. Sometimes the time needed between making a purchase decision and creating an actual purchase is not the same because of other things that need to be considered.
 5. Post-purchase evaluation (post-purchase evaluation) is an evaluation process conducted by consumers not only end at the stage of purchasing decision making. After purchasing the product, consumers will evaluate whether the product is in line with their expectations. In this case, satisfied and unsatisfied consumers will happen. Consumers will be satisfied if the product is in line with their expectations and will further increase demand for the product brand in the future. Conversely, consumers will feel dissatisfied if the product does not meet their expectations and this will reduce consumer demand in the future.
 The influencing factors There are five internal factors that are relevant to the purchasing decision making process:
1. Motivation (motivation) is an impulse that exists in humans to achieve certain goals.
2. Perception (perception) is the result of a person's interpretation of the stimulus or event he received based on his information and experience of the stimulus.
3. Attitude formation is an assessment that is in someone who reflects the attitude of someone likes / dislikes about a thing.
4. Integration (integration) is a union between attitude and action. Integration is a response to the attitude taken. Feelings like will encourage someone to buy and feelings of dislike will make a person's determination not to buy the product.
 The Concept of Consumer Behavior in Defining Markets Another important factor that must be taken into account when developing marketing strategies for consumers is "market segmentation". Market segmentation means dividing a company's potential customers into various segments or groups (for example, based on age, gender, religion, location, etc.) and then focusing the marketing strategy on one or more groups. When using market segmentation, it is important to determine what factors will be considered. Factors are called segmentation variables. Segmentation variables need to be related to the needs, uses, or behavior of the product or service.
For example, acoustic guitar manufacturers will most likely market segments based on age, that is, their marketing strategies will be designed to attract and influence teenagers. The company's resources and ability to determine the number and size of market segments that they can expect to attract with their marketing strategy.
The types of products and services, as well as variations in the needs of their customers, will play a role in the size and number of targeted market segments. Choosing the right segmentation variable is an important part of targeting certain consumer markets. Choosing the right segmentation variable is an important part of targeting certain consumer markets.
Market segmentation is an action to identify and form separate groups of buyers who may need separate product and marketing mix. In this research, the segmentation base used is a lifestyle that can influence the marketing mix and preferences for the marketing mix of E-Commerce. This means that the basis of segmentation is seen from their behavior towards the marketing mix. With the similarity of behavioral characteristics that affect the marketing mix, it is expected that each segment formed can be approached with the right offer so as to increase customer satisfaction from each segment. Of the eight marketing mix elements used there are 6 significant elements in differentiating between segments, namely products, promotions, physical evidence, community, process and price. The other two namely place and change turned out to be 95% confidence level cannot be used to differentiate segments. This means that each segment has the same marketing mix preference for the two elements.

Have you built your brand correctly?

Have you built your brand correctly? There is a lot of knowledge that must be absorbed by a marketer, but sometimes they underestimate brand equity. In fact, they must know how to build and strengthen a brand because that's how any business they run will be successful. How about you? Do you really know about the brand? Have you built your brand correctly? If you are not too sure about what you have done in your business, then it is highly recommended to understand exactly what a brand is and how important a brand is for your business.
 Understanding Brand Equity There are many marketing experts who provide definitions about this brand equity. However, there are at least two important roles of a brand. First, brand as identity. People now don't have to think long to determine whether the blue "F" that usually appears on the interent because once they see it they immediately know that it is a symbol of Facebook. Brand equity dimensions in consumer satisfaction, this is just one example of how Mark Zuckerberg is very concerned about Brand Equity because he does not need to constantly explain what Facebook is. People will know right away even though there is only one letter "F". that's why the brand is considered as an identity. Second, the brand acts as a market controller.
Do you know why tourists who vacation in Jogja mostly hunt Dagadu clothes? Because what's on their minds, is a distinctive clothing brand in the City of Jogjakarta. In fact, did you know there are lots of brands that are no less good? Or another example when you go to Bali, do you know of any other t-shirt brand besides Joger? well it means that each of these brands (Google and Bing) already has a very strong brand equity. This is exactly what Prof. said Kevin Keller about the definition of brand equity: Understanding Brand Equity The word Equity (Equity) must be familiar to our ears. But have you ever heard the term Brand Equity?
The following is an explanation of the definitions / definitions of the Brand Equity. From the brief explanation above, it is clear that building Brand Equity is very important. Of these two important roles, Hermawan Kertajaya, a marketing expert from Indonesia, defines Brand Equity as an asset that creates value for customers by increasing satisfaction and appreciating quality From this definition, there are two things that you must underline; namely increasing satisfaction and appreciating quality. Increasing satisfaction means that for brand owners, there is no word 'done' to innovate because only by always innovating can they always satisfy the customer.
And second, respecting quality means that both the brand owner and the customer know and realize which quality products are not just by looking at the brand alone. At least that's a brief understanding of what is meant by Brand Equity. From here, you marketers understand how important a brand is. Therefore, you must know how to build and raise a brand. To be more passionate about building a brand, you need to know first what are the benefits of strengthening the brand. Brand Equity is a brand asset asset and liability associated with a brand, name, symbol, which is able to increase or decrease the value given by a product or service to the company or to the customer. Brand Equity is an asset that provides its own value in the eyes of its customers.
The assets contained can assist customers in interpreting, processing and storing information related to these products and brands. Brand Equity can influence consumer confidence in making purchasing decisions on the basis of past experience in use or proximity, associating with various brand characteristics. According to David A. Aaker (Managing Brand Equity, 1991), brand equity can be grouped into five categories, namely:
1. Brand awareness (brand awareness), shows the ability of a prospective buyer to recognize or recall that a brand is part of a particular product category.
2. Brand association (brand association), reflects the image of a brand of a certain impression in relation to habits, lifestyles, benefits, product attributes, geographical, price, competitors, celebrities, and others.
3. Perceived quality (reflecting quality), reflecting customer perceptions of the overall quality / excellence of a product or service regarding the intended purpose.
4. Brand loyalty (brand loyalty), reflects the level of consumer attachment to a product brand.
5. Other proprietary brand assets (other brand assets).

Employee Job Satisfaction and Productivity Determinants

Employee Job Satisfaction and Productivity Determinants
Definition of Job Satisfaction - Meeting employee job satisfaction is one of the determinants of increasing employee productivity. The definition of job satisfaction must be understood by company officials in managing their human resources. All company activities are basically very dependent on human resources and need help from them. Therefore the company must understand the understanding of job satisfaction of every employee to maintain and increase employee loyalty. Through an understanding of the meaning of job satisfaction and fulfillment of satisfaction in each individual, employees will provide the best in exchange for high productivity companies.
This indicates that there is influence of work satisfaction, a close relationship between motivation and employee job satisfaction. Basically job satisfaction is an individual thing. This is because every individual has different and varied job satisfaction indicators. The more aspects that are in accordance with an employee's work, the greater the level of job satisfaction felt. Based on this, many companies are looking for work satisfaction indicators through various sources such as job satisfaction journals or job satisfaction papers. The company also conducted a survey through a job satisfaction questionnaire for its human resources.
The step was taken as the company's development of its human resources with the hope of increasing productivity in each individual. This step is inseparable from data on job satisfaction where 81% of workers in small businesses are satisfied with their work. Whereas only 68% of job satisfaction is felt in full-time workers or in large companies (Rutger University Survey, 2013). Seeing the urgency about job satisfaction, especially in large companies, this article will discuss the understanding of the meaning of job satisfaction and factors that affect employee job satisfaction in a company.

12 Definition of Job Satisfaction According to Experts
Job satisfaction is one of the important aspects that affects the productivity of every individual / employee who works in a company. Job satisfaction is needed because most of human time is spent at the location where he works. Therefore it is necessary to have a basic understanding of the notion of job satisfaction so that the feedback provided by management is right on target. There are several definitions of job satisfaction expressed from various sources, the following explanation: Hasibuan (2001) Job satisfaction is an emotional attitude that expresses pleasure and likes work.
This attitude is reflected in work morals, discipline and work performance. Feelings of job satisfaction are felt when in the work environment, outside the work environment, and a combination of the two. Hani Handoko (2001) The definition or understanding of job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state or not when employees see the work done. Job satisfaction reflects each individual's sense of work. Blum (1956) The meaning of job satisfaction is a general attitude which is the result of a variety of specific attitudes towards several work factors, individual characteristics and relationships with groups outside the work environment.
Robbins and Judge (2008) The definition of job satisfaction is a positive feeling about a job that comes from the evaluation results on its characteristics. Susilo Martoyo (1992) Martoyo stated that job satisfaction is an aspect of psychology that reflects what people feel in the work they do. Someone tends to feel job satisfaction when there is a match between the skills, skills, and desires of the work he is living. Davis (1995) According to Davis job satisfaction is the satisfaction of employees about the work they want related to their work.
Setiawan and Ghozali (2006) The notion of job satisfaction is a pleasant condition that stems from a person's view of the work he is carrying out and related experience while he is working. Tiffin (1958) In his explanation Tiffin stated that job satisfaction is closely related to all employee behavior in the work he is carrying out, working conditions, cooperative relationships between leaders and employees. Greenberg and Baron (2003) Baron and Greenberg state that the notion of job satisfaction is a positive or negative attitude reflected by employees towards the work they live. Luthans (2006) Luthans' view of job satisfaction is the result of employee views related to how the work they do in providing important value.
Gibson (2000) The description of job satisfaction is an attitude that is reflected by workers towards the work they are undertaking. This attitude emerged from their view of work. Kreitner and Kinicki (2005) Kinicki and Kreitner explained that job satisfaction as an effectiveness and emotional reaction to various factors of work. Factors That Affect Job Satisfaction Definition of Job Satisfaction 1 After understanding the notion of job satisfaction then the next important thing to know is about the factors that affect job satisfaction. There are various factors that affect employee job satisfaction at his job / company where he works. Each factor has its own role in providing job satisfaction depending on the characteristics of each employee (Sutrisno, 2009).
Various sources discuss the factors that influence job satisfaction. Although different in the delivery but has almost the same meaning and meaning. Here are some factors that affect job satisfaction according to various sources: Outline When seen in outline there are 4 factors that affect job satisfaction. These factors can emerge and motivate employees' job satisfaction attitudes. These factors are: Psychological factors are factors related to employee commitment to job satisfaction which include job calmness, interest, work attitude, talent and expertise.
In obtaining job satisfaction this factor is a factor related to social interaction between employees and superiors and subordinates. The better communication is established, the higher job satisfaction is felt. Physical factors are factors related to the physical state of the workplace environment and the physical state of employees. Physical factors in their effects on job satisfaction such as type of work, work and rest time, facilities and infrastructure, work space conditions, health, age and so on. All factors relating to guarantees for employee welfare include the system and the amount of salary, benefits, insurance, facilities, and all forms of promotion.

Factors That Affect Consumer Purchasing Decisions

Factors That Affect Consumer Purchasing Decisions
According to Phillip Kotler (2003: 202) consumer purchasing behavior is influenced by four factors, including the following:
1. Personal Purchasing decisions can also be influenced by personal characteristics including age and life cycle stages, work, economic conditions, lifestyle, as well as the personality and self-concept of the buyer.
a. Age and family life cycle People buy different goods and services throughout their lives where each of these consumption activities is influenced by the life cycle of the family
b. Employment and economic environment A person's work and economic environment can influence his consumption patterns. Triggering impulsive buying on shopping emotion, For example, the company director will buy expensive clothes, travel by airplane, membership in a special club, and buy a luxury car. In addition, product selection is usually done based on a person's economic situation such as the amount of income he has, the amount of savings, debt and attitudes towards spending or saving.
c. Lifestyle Lifestyle can be interpreted as a pattern of a person's life that is revealed in his activities, interests and opinions that are formed through a social class, and work. However, the same social class and occupation do not guarantee the emergence of a similar lifestyle. Seeing this as an opportunity in marketing activities, many marketers are directing their brands to one's lifestyle. For example, cell phone companies of various brands are competing to make their products in line with various modern and dynamic teenage lifestyles such as the emergence of cellular phones with multimedia features aimed at young people whose activities cannot be separated from various multimedia things such as sound player applications, videos, camera and so on. Or businesses who want cellular phones that can support their various business activities.
d. Personality Each person has a variety of different personality characteristics that can influence the purchasing activities. Personality is a distinct psychological trait of human beings which results in a relatively consistent and long-lasting response to environmental stimuli. Personality is usually described by using innate traits such as self-confidence, dominance, social skills, self-defense and ability to adapt (Harold H roughjian 1981: 160). Personality can be a very useful variable in analyzing consumer brand choices. This is caused because some consumers will choose a brand that matches their personality.
2. Psychological Finally, the factors that can influence consumer purchasing decisions are psychological factors. This factor is influenced by four main factors including the following: a. Motivation A person has many needs at certain times. Some of these needs arise from biological stresses such as hunger, thirst, and discomfort. While some other needs can be psychogenetic; that is, needs stemming from psychological pressures such as the need for recognition, appreciation or a sense of group membership. When a person observes a brand, he will react not only to the tangible capabilities seen in the brand, but also to see other vague clues such as the shape, size, weight, material, color and brand name that spurred the direction of certain thoughts and emotions.
3. Cultural factors Culture, sub-culture, and social class are very important for buying behavior. Culture is the most basic determinant of desire and behavior. Growing children will get a set of values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors from the family and other important institutions. For example, children raised in the United States are strongly affected by the following values: achievement, activity, efficiency, progress, material enjoyment, individualism, freedom, humanism, and youth. Each sub-culture consists of a number of sub-cultures that show more specific identification and socialization for their members such as nationality, religion, group, race, and geographical area. Basically, in an order of life in society there is a level (strata) social. The social level can take the form of a caste system that reflects a relatively homogeneous and permanent social class that is arranged in a hierarchical manner and whose members share similar values, interests and behaviors. Social class not only reflects income, but also other indicators such as work, education, behavior in dress, way of speaking, recreation and others.
4. Social Factors In addition to cultural factors, consumer purchasing behavior is also influenced by social factors such as:
a. Reference group The reference group in consumer purchasing behavior can be interpreted as a group that can exert direct or indirect influence on a person's attitude or behavior. This group is usually called a membership group, which is a group that can exert direct influence on someone. The members of this group are usually members of primary groups such as family, friends, neighbors and coworkers who interact directly and continuously in informal conditions. Not only primary groups, secondary groups which usually consist of religious groups, professions and trade associations can also be referred to as membership groups.
b. Family In a consumer purchasing organization, families are divided into two parts. First the family known as family orientas. This type of family consists of parents and siblings who can provide religious, political and economic orientation as well as personal ambition, self-esteem and love. Second, a family consisting of a spouse and the number of children a person has. This type of family is commonly known as the procreation family.
c. Role and status The next thing that can be a social factor that can influence a person's buying behavior is their role and status in society. The higher the role of someone in an organization, the higher their status in the organization and can directly affect their buying behavior. For example a director in a company certainly has a higher status than a supervisor, as well as in his buying behavior. Of course, a company director will make purchases of brands that are more expensive than other brands.

What are the important elements of Digital Marketing for your business?

What are the important elements of Digital Marketing for your business?
In digital marketing there are several core elements that work together to create the foundation for a successful business. Attracting prospects, building relationships, and making offers that drive conversions are all the right paths in digital marketing.
What are the important elements of Digital Marketing for your business?
When you start learning digital marketing, the influence of element marketing communication, it helps you understand each of the core elements of digital marketing. Of all these core elements, it's good to do it in a noble manner. Take some elements that you feel are the priorities for finding and studying potential customers. Then after a good interaction, you can continue to approach using other core elements. And here are the core elements that make up digital marketing:
1. Content Marketing Content Marketing is much more than just blogging. Content Marketing is a tactic that must provide valuable information at every stage of the Customer Value Journey. To move your prospects through Customer Value Journey. You need to create valuable content and guide them through the years: Awareness, Evaluation, and Conversion.
2. Customer Value Journey Customer Value Journey makes you automate the entire process of customer acquisition, so you can sell without forcing or scaring consumers. It consists of 8 stages - from Awareness to Promotion, which aims to build the trust and loyalty of consumers.
3. Digital Advertising This is something we all know: paid advertising. From banner ads on websites to video ads on YouTube, you see them everywhere. Digital Advertising includes promotional advertisements and messages sent by email, social media websites, online advertisements in search engines, banner ads on mobile sites or websites, and affiliate programs.
4. Social Media Marketing "Going social" is not just about being active on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram. It's about being present at your audience gathering place. So you can engage with them, build relationships, and make offers that your followers will like. You don't need to be the same as your audience. You just need to be problem solving of your audience's problems. What they need and what they consume.
5. Email Marketing Don't believe rumors. Email Marketing is far from extinct or abandoned in today's digital era. In fact, email has one of the highest Return of Investment (ROI) marketing activities. The key to generating that ROI is to focus on things like: Make sure your email is sent Prospective customers open your email Generate attachment, so your potential customers take the action you ask for Automate the whole process
6. Search Marketing This is a long term strategy. SEO can help you get free organic traffic and increase the confidence of your visitors while supporting your other digital marketing as well. To win in SEO and improve your ranking, you need to produce high quality content and optimize your website for your users first.
7. Website Analytics This is a powerful tool to help you know what works, what doesn't, and what to do next. With analytic websites we will get data, for example: What types of visitors failed to convert? Do we produce content that the audience wants? Which page can generate more traffic?
8. Conversion rate optimization This process is one of the important steps to drive online business growth. The CRO process itself includes qualitative and quantitative data testing involving several Conversion rate optimization tools. If you are a beginner and trying to apply Digital Marketing to your business and business, try to carry out the above elements in a diligent manner and always optimize every element that suits your audience or potential customers. Don't forget to continue to evaluate each process. Try to determine a Key Performance Indicator for each element that you will implement.

Understanding Learning Media According to Experts and in General

Understanding Learning Media According to Experts and in General
Understanding Learning Media According to Experts and in General - This time we will discuss the meaning of the true definition of learning media. Because if we look for what is learning media, then there will be a lot of different literature with different explanations. The word media comes from Latin and is a plural form of the word "medium", which means an intermediary or introduction. The media is an intermediary or messenger of messages from the sender (communicator or source / source) to the recipient (communicant or audience / receiver).
Design and multimedia teaching can be interpreted as an intermediary, a liaison; communication tools (such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, films, posters and banners), which are located between two parties (people, groups, etc.). So, in general it can be interpreted that the learning media is a teaching aid. Namely everything that can be used to stimulate the thoughts, feelings, attention and abilities or skills of students so that it can encourage the learning process in students (students / students).
Understanding Learning Media According to Experts and in General Learning media can also be interpreted as a tool or means or an intermediary used in the process of interaction that takes place between the teacher and students to encourage the occurrence of teaching and learning with the aim of gaining knowledge, skills and strengthening what is learned and helps to achieve quality learning goals. Learning media are an inseparable part of learning activities in schools. The use of instructional media is also a creative and systematic effort to create experiences that can help student learning processes.
This is because the media acts as a stimulant for learning and can foster motivation to learn so that students do not get bored easily in following the teaching-learning process. However, it should be noted that the most important criteria in media selection is that media must be adapted to the learning objectives or competencies to be achieved.
Understanding Learning Media According to Educational Experts. And for more details in understanding what learning media is, consider the following definition and understanding of learning media according to some complete education experts. Schramm (1977) The definition of instructional media is "messenger technology that can be utilized for learning purposes". Briggs (1977) Learning media are "physical means to convey content / learning materials such as books, films, videos, slides, and so on.
Romiszowski (2001: 12) The definition of instructional media is an effective medium for carrying out a well-planned teaching process. Azhar (2011) Understanding learning media is a tool in the learning process both inside and outside the classroom, further explained that learning media is a component of learning resources or a physical vehicle containing instructional material in the student environment that can stimulate students to learn Arief Sadiman (2008: 7) Learning media are all things that can be used to channel messages from the sender to the recipient of the message.
Sutjiono (2005) Learning media is needed by the teacher so that learning runs effectively and efficiently. Rayanda Asyar (2012: 8) Learning media can be understood as anything that can convey or channel messages from a planned source, so that a conducive learning environment occurs where the recipient can carry out the learning process efficiently and effectively Syaful Bahri Djamarah and Azwan Zain (2010: 121) Learning media are any tools that can be used as a channel for messages to achieve learning objectives.
Munadi (2008: 7) Understanding learning media is anything that can convey and channel messages from a planned source so as to create a conducive learning environment where the recipient can carry out the learning process efficiently and effectively. Learning media are all things that people use to channel messages. Gagne Learning media as a type of component in the student environment that can stimulate them to learn. Heinich, Molenida, and Russel (1993) Argues that technology or learning media as a scientific application of the learning process in humans in the practical task of teaching and learning. Ali (1992) Argues that "Media are various types of components in the student environment which can provide stimuli for learning".

Understanding Service Quality and Benefits for Customers

Understanding Service Quality and Benefits for Customers
Definition of Service Quality: Service according to Lovelock is defined as an economic activity that creates and provides benefits for customers at a certain time and place, as a result and act of bringing about the desired changes in themselves or on behalf of the recipient of the service. Meanwhile, Kotler's definition of service is every action or activities that can be offered by one party to another are basically intangible and do not result in any ownership. Service Characteristics, service quality and customer satisfaction according to Norman (1991; 14) are as follows: The intangible nature of the service is quite the opposite of the real nature of the finished goods. The service in fact consists of concrete actions and is an influence which is social action.
While the control and management of social action is more concerned with skills and technical issues. Production and consumption of services can not be separated significantly, because in general the same events and occur in the same place. Service requires a positive attitude in front of consumers or customers. Smiles, words, gestures, ways of dress and dexterity in service will provide great added value for customers (Soeling 1997: 17). This understanding is more than the traditional view which tends to limit the problems and complaints of consumers.
According to this understanding all people in the organization will be part of all services provided despite their indirect involvement. Service to customers can be done with the help of technology and communication media. Therefore, in order to achieve competitive advantage and win the trust of customers, customer service must be proactive, up to date, efficient and effective. Meanwhile (Sewell and Brown, 1997: 31-36) say, smile, said, gestures, dressing, and so on are part of an effort to provide good services but that is only a small part. If the service to the customer is like a cake, then manners, smiles, and willingness to come to a place far enough is the spice.
The cake is a system that allows us to do a good job. By Davidow and Uttal (1989: 19) it is said that service in a broad sense is what endeavors to enhance customer satisfaction (whatever enhances customer satisfaction). Good service for customers is a powerful weapon to win the competition in capturing existing markets by offering goods or services that can satisfy and even exceed what consumers expect. Such is the importance of service to customers that there are expressions that state that "customer is king", "customer is key", "customer is one source" or "customer is the person who calls our paychecks". So however bad the appearance of a customer the officers at all are not allowed to assume that the customer's personality is also bad.
The appearance of the customer should not be an obstacle for the officers to lift the customer's self-esteem, so that the customer will always use the services offered. Furthermore, the customer's self-esteem must also be protected and protected. And officers should never underestimate customer self-esteem, even if not in public. If the officer takes an action that makes the customer's feelings and self-esteem fall in public, it is certain that the customer will never come back again. And to get a new customer requires five times more effort than to retain existing customers while looking for new customers, because customers are repeat business.
Therefore often the use of services has made a number of organizations / companies value their loyal customers by giving discounts, offering to be a member of a particular club, giving bonuses in the form of goods, and newsletters. Satisfied customers are loyal customers, and such customers will tell others about the service they received.
Consumer or customer is a form of word-of-mouth advertising. Word-of-mouth is usually quickly accepted by other customers because the people who deliver it are people they can trust, such as experts, friends, family, and publications in the mass media. Besides that word-of-mouth is also quickly accepted as a reference because service customers usually find it difficult to evaluate services that they haven't bought or haven't felt. Another understanding developed by Davidow and Uttal (1989: 22) is that customer service is all highlighting, actions and information that can enhance the customer's ability to realize the potential value of the core product or service