Consumer Behavior in Choosing Products
Consumer behavior is the process and activity when someone deals with the search, selection, purchase, use, and evaluation of products and services to meet their needs and desires. Consumer behavior is the things that underlie consumers to make purchasing decisions. For low-priced goods (low-involvement) the decision-making process is carried out easily, while for high-priced goods (high-involvement) the decision making process is carried out with careful consideration.
Purchasing decision making process (Consumer considerations in choosing)
Before and after making a purchase, a consumer will carry out a number of processes that underlie decision making, namely:
1. Recognition of problems (problem recognition). Consumers will buy a product as a solution to the problems they face. Without the introduction of problems that arise, consumers can not determine the product to be purchased.
2. Search for information (information source). After understanding the existing problems, consumers will be motivated to find information to solve existing problems through information search. The process of finding information can come from memory (internal) and based on the experience of others (external).
3. Evaluate alternatives (alternative evaluation). After consumers get various kinds of information, consumers will evaluate alternatives that exist to overcome the problems they face.
4. Purchase decision. After consumers evaluate several strategic alternatives, consumers will make a purchasing decision. Sometimes the time needed between making a purchase decision and creating an actual purchase is not the same because of other things that need to be considered.
5. Post-purchase evaluation (post-purchase evaluation) is an evaluation process conducted by consumers not only end at the stage of purchasing decision making. After purchasing the product, consumers will evaluate whether the product is in line with their expectations. In this case, satisfied and unsatisfied consumers will happen. Consumers will be satisfied if the product is in line with their expectations and will further increase demand for the product brand in the future. Conversely, consumers will feel dissatisfied if the product does not meet their expectations and this will reduce consumer demand in the future.
The influencing factors
There are five internal factors that are relevant to the purchasing decision making process:
1. Motivation (motivation) is an impulse that exists in humans to achieve certain goals.
2. Perception (perception) is the result of a person's interpretation of the stimulus or event he received based on his information and experience of the stimulus.
3. Attitude formation is an assessment that is in someone who reflects the attitude of someone likes / dislikes about a thing.
4. Integration (integration) is a union between attitude and action. Integration is a response to the attitude taken. Feelings like will encourage someone to buy and feelings of dislike will make a person's determination not to buy the product.
The Concept of Consumer Behavior in Defining Markets
Another important factor that must be taken into account when developing marketing strategies for consumers is "market segmentation". Market segmentation means dividing a company's potential customers into various segments or groups (for example, based on age, gender, religion, location, etc.) and then focusing the marketing strategy on one or more groups. When using market segmentation, it is important to determine what factors will be considered. Factors are called segmentation variables. Segmentation variables need to be related to the needs, uses, or behavior of the product or service.
For example, acoustic guitar manufacturers will most likely market segments based on age, that is, their marketing strategies will be designed to attract and influence teenagers.
The company's resources and ability to determine the number and size of market segments that they can expect to attract with their marketing strategy.
The types of products and services, as well as variations in the needs of their customers, will play a role in the size and number of targeted market segments. Choosing the right segmentation variable is an important part of targeting certain consumer markets. Choosing the right segmentation variable is an important part of targeting certain consumer markets.
Market segmentation is an action to identify and form separate groups of buyers who may need separate product and marketing mix. In this research, the segmentation base used is a lifestyle that can influence the marketing mix and preferences for the marketing mix of E-Commerce. This means that the basis of segmentation is seen from their behavior towards the marketing mix. With the similarity of behavioral characteristics that affect the marketing mix, it is expected that each segment formed can be approached with the right offer so as to increase customer satisfaction from each segment.
Of the eight marketing mix elements used there are 6 significant elements in differentiating between segments, namely products, promotions, physical evidence, community, process and price. The other two namely place and change turned out to be 95% confidence level cannot be used to differentiate segments. This means that each segment has the same marketing mix preference for the two elements.