Factors That Affect Consumer Purchasing Decisions
According to Phillip Kotler (2003: 202) consumer purchasing behavior is influenced by four factors, including the following:
Purchasing decisions can also be influenced by personal characteristics including age and life cycle stages, work, economic conditions, lifestyle, as well as the personality and self-concept of the buyer.
a. Age and family life cycle
People buy different goods and services throughout their lives where each of these consumption activities is influenced by the life cycle of the family
b. Employment and economic environment
A person's work and economic environment can influence his consumption patterns. Triggering impulsive buying on shopping emotion, For example, the company director will buy expensive clothes, travel by airplane, membership in a special club, and buy a luxury car. In addition, product selection is usually done based on a person's economic situation such as the amount of income he has, the amount of savings, debt and attitudes towards spending or saving.
Lifestyle can be interpreted as a pattern of a person's life that is revealed in his activities, interests and opinions that are formed through a social class, and work. However, the same social class and occupation do not guarantee the emergence of a similar lifestyle. Seeing this as an opportunity in marketing activities, many marketers are directing their brands to one's lifestyle. For example, cell phone companies of various brands are competing to make their products in line with various modern and dynamic teenage lifestyles such as the emergence of cellular phones with multimedia features aimed at young people whose activities cannot be separated from various multimedia things such as sound player applications, videos, camera and so on. Or businesses who want cellular phones that can support their various business activities.
Each person has a variety of different personality characteristics that can influence the purchasing activities. Personality is a distinct psychological trait of human beings which results in a relatively consistent and long-lasting response to environmental stimuli. Personality is usually described by using innate traits such as self-confidence, dominance, social skills, self-defense and ability to adapt (Harold H roughjian 1981: 160). Personality can be a very useful variable in analyzing consumer brand choices. This is caused because some consumers will choose a brand that matches their personality.
Finally, the factors that can influence consumer purchasing decisions are psychological factors. This factor is influenced by four main factors including the following:
A person has many needs at certain times. Some of these needs arise from biological stresses such as hunger, thirst, and discomfort. While some other needs can be psychogenetic; that is, needs stemming from psychological pressures such as the need for recognition, appreciation or a sense of group membership. When a person observes a brand, he will react not only to the tangible capabilities seen in the brand, but also to see other vague clues such as the shape, size, weight, material, color and brand name that spurred the direction of certain thoughts and emotions.
3. Cultural factors
Culture, sub-culture, and social class are very important for buying behavior. Culture is the most basic determinant of desire and behavior. Growing children will get a set of values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors from the family and other important institutions. For example, children raised in the United States are strongly affected by the following values: achievement, activity, efficiency, progress, material enjoyment, individualism, freedom, humanism, and youth.
Each sub-culture consists of a number of sub-cultures that show more specific identification and socialization for their members such as nationality, religion, group, race, and geographical area.
Basically, in an order of life in society there is a level (strata) social. The social level can take the form of a caste system that reflects a relatively homogeneous and permanent social class that is arranged in a hierarchical manner and whose members share similar values, interests and behaviors. Social class not only reflects income, but also other indicators such as work, education, behavior in dress, way of speaking, recreation and others.
4. Social Factors
In addition to cultural factors, consumer purchasing behavior is also influenced by social factors such as:
a. Reference group
The reference group in consumer purchasing behavior can be interpreted as a group that can exert direct or indirect influence on a person's attitude or behavior. This group is usually called a membership group, which is a group that can exert direct influence on someone. The members of this group are usually members of primary groups such as family, friends, neighbors and coworkers who interact directly and continuously in informal conditions. Not only primary groups, secondary groups which usually consist of religious groups, professions and trade associations can also be referred to as membership groups.
In a consumer purchasing organization, families are divided into two parts. First the family known as family orientas. This type of family consists of parents and siblings who can provide religious, political and economic orientation as well as personal ambition, self-esteem and love. Second, a family consisting of a spouse and the number of children a person has. This type of family is commonly known as the procreation family.
c. Role and status
The next thing that can be a social factor that can influence a person's buying behavior is their role and status in society. The higher the role of someone in an organization, the higher their status in the organization and can directly affect their buying behavior. For example a director in a company certainly has a higher status than a supervisor, as well as in his buying behavior. Of course, a company director will make purchases of brands that are more expensive than other brands.